Foundries expel wastewater directly into surface water and also indirectly through Publicly Owned Treatment Works (PTOWs). Since 1985, the EPA has regulated 28 foundry processes through its Metal Molding and Casting (MMC) Effluent Guidelines and Standards. These guidelines are incorporated into National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for direct discharges, and special certifications or other control mechanisms for indirect dischargers.

For 3 of the processes, the technology basis of the regulations are “no discharge of process wastewater pollutants.” The remaining 25 are based on a combination of technologies such as high rate recycle, oil skimming, lime precipitation and settling, and filtration.

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